Saturday, November 30, 2019
An Ongoing Obsession: The MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s Effects on Eating Disorders Ã¢â¬Å"Man I look fat! I will never have the perfect body.Ã¢â¬ This is what many young women say when they look at themselves in the mirror. There is no such thing as the perfect body, yet many people believe there is. The media is one factor that plays a role in societyÃ¢â¬â¢s view of young women. Today, women with eating disorders are affected greatly by the media. Television, magazines, posters, and billboards all show how the media views what young women should look like. Tall, rail-thin, a flawless complexion, and great hair are a few of the things that women today should entail. This is impossible, but yet a great number of women believe they can achieve this perfect body which the media portrays. There are many factors that play a role in the way women feel about their bodies, but the key factor is the media. Women feel the constant pressure to mirror the image of models and actresses in magazines and on television. This feeling may begin as early as childhood. A pre-adolescent becomes very aware of how society views the Ã¢â¬Å"perfect body.Ã¢â¬ A study done in 1996 showed that the amount of time an adolescent watches television and reads magazines is greatly associated with their degree of body displeasure and their need to be thin (National Institute). The average adolescent watches about three to four hours of television a day and therefore will greatly be affected by what the media portrays how young women are supposed to look (Yellon). Many young girls dislike their body, and this feeling is known to grow up until early adulthood, or maybe even last for the rest of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. How can this start so young people may ask, studies have shown that cartoon characters can affect how children feel. Female children describe the roles of girl cartoon characters as Ã¢â¬Å"domestic, interested in boys, and concerned with appearances,Ã¢â¬ (National Institute). S... 's Effect On Eating Disorders Free Essays on Media\'s Effect On Eating Disorders An Ongoing Obsession: The MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s Effects on Eating Disorders Ã¢â¬Å"Man I look fat! I will never have the perfect body.Ã¢â¬ This is what many young women say when they look at themselves in the mirror. There is no such thing as the perfect body, yet many people believe there is. The media is one factor that plays a role in societyÃ¢â¬â¢s view of young women. Today, women with eating disorders are affected greatly by the media. Television, magazines, posters, and billboards all show how the media views what young women should look like. Tall, rail-thin, a flawless complexion, and great hair are a few of the things that women today should entail. This is impossible, but yet a great number of women believe they can achieve this perfect body which the media portrays. There are many factors that play a role in the way women feel about their bodies, but the key factor is the media. Women feel the constant pressure to mirror the image of models and actresses in magazines and on television. This feeling may begin as early as childhood. A pre-adolescent becomes very aware of how society views the Ã¢â¬Å"perfect body.Ã¢â¬ A study done in 1996 showed that the amount of time an adolescent watches television and reads magazines is greatly associated with their degree of body displeasure and their need to be thin (National Institute). The average adolescent watches about three to four hours of television a day and therefore will greatly be affected by what the media portrays how young women are supposed to look (Yellon). Many young girls dislike their body, and this feeling is known to grow up until early adulthood, or maybe even last for the rest of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. How can this start so young people may ask, studies have shown that cartoon characters can affect how children feel. Female children describe the roles of girl cartoon characters as Ã¢â¬Å"domestic, interested in boys, and concerned with appearances,Ã¢â¬ (National Institute). S...
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Marks Spencer Essay Essay Example Marks Spencer Essay Essay Marks Spencer Essay Essay This assignment will examine how Marks Spencers strategies have changed in the past 10 years, from 1998 to 2008. These strategies include management strategy, corporate social responsibility, advertising strategy, competitive strategy, and green strategy. However, the most important strategy must be the recovery plan of these ten years. Marks Spencer is the largest clothing retailer in the UK. It is also an international retailer which operates around 760 stores in more than 20 countries around the world. The company provided quality products with affordable prices and they offer a board range of products, such as womenswear, menswear, childrenswear, babywear, and homewares. [Mintel, Retail Review March, 2008] In 1998, the company was hit by falling sales and loss of market share. They suffered 23% decrease in profits, and by 2001 Marks and Spencer was no longer even in the Financial Times list of the top 500 global companies. It was even in danger of being taken over by another company. The reasons of decreasing sales include the failure of the changing needs of its core consumers, boring design and styling and fashionable competitors, such as Gap and Zara. Since then, the company used different strategies to recover the company lost. By the end of 2002, the market share of the clothing market raised up sharply to 14.8%. Marks and Spencer were able to bring back the customers temperately. However, they experienced another rapid drop in market share again in the 2 following years, which was between 2003 and 2004. Fortunately, the company picked up the market share in 2006 with strong performances from menswear, womenswear and childrenwear. The Christmas sales even rose up by 9.2% in 2007, which was officially recovered. Therefore, the question about how the company went down, how it recovered and the presence strategy will be discovered. [Marks Spencer annual report, mintel 2002] First of all, management strategy is involved during these ten years. Marks Spencer has been changed their director board many times since1998. For example, Luc Vandevelde recruited as a chairman in 2000 and now, Stuart Rose is the current executive chairman since 2008. The organisational structure has been changed to be flatter over these ten years They company has been cut down some layers of management since 1998. This would enable their employees at the remaining levels to be more responsible and have more accountability than before. Quicker decision could be made by this strategy which means that the employee has to be ready to give good reason for the decisions that they make. In 2001, Marks Spencer made attention on implementing the changes about adding highly talented retail specialists to the company. Started from 2000, the company have put in place a strong leadership team, which has developed a very good progress in its implementation. They were trying to improve the value of the core market. [Marks Spencer annual report, mintel 2002] From 2003 to 2007, the number of Marks Spencer stores in the UK and Republic of Ireland has increased from 335 to 472, which is a strategy of market penetration, as Marks Spencer marketed the same products to its exciting consumers that are in the UK and Republic of Ireland for increase sales. In addition, launching loyalty card is another activity of market penetration. (Ridder, K.,2003 , Mintel, 2007) Many of Marks and Spencers strategies can be defined by using Ansoffs matrix, which is one of the most useful planning aid. This helps identifying alternative strategies based on products and markets. There are four main growth strategies of possible combinations for products and markets. They are market perpetration, market development, product development and diversification. [Ansoffs Matrix, 2008] Product development is the process that involved the development of new products for current customers. For instance, the David Beckham range of childrenswear, DB07 was launched in 2004. A brand is an empty vessel you imbue with value.(Wally Olins, 1988) This quote relates to Marks and Spencer, because of it was an opportunity of adding value, quality and leadership by having David Beckham to be one of their ranges, DB07. This helped the company to attract new customers in the new market, which is another example of Diversification. Market Development means the process of developing new markets for existing products. Targeting new segments or expanding new geographical markets can achieve the company growth. However, Marks Spencer did not enter any new geographical markets, since the sale of Brooks Brothers in 2000 and King Super Markets in 2006 for their recovery plan. The company tried to focus on Europe, because the company mainly owned stores in the UK, Republic of Ireland and franchises in Continental Europe. The numbers of stores in the Continental European countries are even expanded from 82 to 131 in total between July 2004 and July 2007. Online shopping is one another activity of market development. Marks Spencer started launching online retailing in 1999. By the end of the year 2000, they had expanded 3,000 products on their website. Then, they kept developing their online shopping through partnerships with different companies, such as MSN in 2000 and Amazon in 2005. (mintel, fashion online 2006) Diversification is the most risky strategies in the Ansoff matrix, as it means the company markets new products to new customers, which may not be relevant. For instance, Marks Spencer had a great idea of hiring a famous football player, David Beckhamd and granting him his own clothing range. Their marketing focus is on their clothing range which is probably the right idea due to competitors such as Sainsburys were introducing their own clothing range. The company had incorporated their own style and image which their competitors could not comprehend to. Therefore, it was a big step in the right direction for the company. [Marks Spencer annual report 1999] The recovery plan on 2000/01 was focusing on UK retail business, cutting down cost and businesses and improving capital structure. The strategy of focusing on the UK retail business which included expanding the growing businesses, such as food, home and beauty, but also concentrating on clothing business, accelerate of store renewal programme for more intensive use of space, and getting closer to the consumer, in terms of better marketing communication. The cutting down unprofitable strategy were involved selling the business in Hong Kong to become a franchise, closing down some unprofitable overseas business and the unprofitable clothes catalogue and reducing cost of goods that by using foreign supplier in Asia, which enabled to reduce sales price and to raise profit. After the recovered of the company, the company was planning to drive their core business, such as product, service, environment and brand stretch. Also, they wanted to develop their international business. On the stra tegy of improving capital structure, the company tried to reduce the investment in inventories by 10%, which helped for a reduction of Ã £90million. Competitions with other retailers, such as Gap and Zara, Marks Spencer has been changed from managing their business as a whole, rather than alone product lines, to Marks Spencer started focusing on the UK market and its core clothing business in 2001. The same year, George David, who is the founder of Next appointed to create a new womens fashion collection for Marks Spencer in February, which called Per Una. This product lines reflected the original Marks Spencers values of quality, value and innovation as well as the modern requirements for fashion. In 2004, the company suggested to change it direction of its clothing. They wanted to attract younger customers and the company bought Per Una from George Davies for Ã £125m in September. [Marks Spencer annual report, 2001and 2004] Marks Spencer have changed a lot in their childrenswear department in 2002. They have been using high technology of health and safety testing on their ranges of childrenswear, which gave a better quality to their products. As mintel report suggested that the biggest threat to the retail scene at that moment (2002) was Marks and Spencer. Marks and Spencer was very interesting, as they have suffered for period but they were more of a threat if they get their act together and get things right in childrens clothing they could make a huge difference much bigger than any foreign retailers entering the marketplace. [Mintel report, 2002] In addition, since Marks and Spencer believed that children-wear should involved more personalities and style, in February of 2002, they decided to sign David Beckham to help with their boy-wear range. In September of 2002, Marks and Spencer introduced their new cloth-wear DB07 which gave a boost to with stronger ranges by expanding and introducing a fast fashion element to its Limited Collection range in 2006/07. [mintel, Retail Review UK March 2008] Since the dramatic sales drop, Marks Spencer started spending a huge amount of money on their advertising strategy. In 1999, they spent around Ã £2 million on the advertising campaign which included television commercial. In 2001, the companys Christmas advertising was launched on the national television. Some of the celebrities were featured saying what Christmas means to them and some of the Christmas gift, products were featured either. In 2004, text marketing was firstly used by Marks and Spencer, which means sending the company brand name to target customers. Also, David Beckham was featured for the collaborated collection, DB07 at the same year, which showed a family men image for the brand and suits the image of Marks Spencer In 2005, an advertising campaign Not just Food was launched in April and the advertising campaign for clothing which Twiggy featured in was also launched in October. In 2006, they launched of Get This Party Started Christmas campaign featuring Shirley Bassey. Marks Spencer has been using different celebrities, media, images and idea to advertise their brands and products. [Barrett, S., 8 Dec 1999] Nowadays, Marks Spencer is more concerned about green and ethical issues than it used to. They were trying to become the most environmentally friendly retailer in the world. In 2006, Marks Spencer has launched a new ethical image, called Look behind the label campaign. The company has been started selling 100% fair-trade cotton since then. In the early 2007, the company planned to spend Ã £200 million on green strategy in the following 5 years, which included climate change, waste, sustainable raw material. The name of the plan, called Plan A, with a tag line Because there is no Plan B. The implementation of paying 5p for standard sized vest carrier bag when purchasing is one of the commitments of Plan A in 2008. [Marks Spencer.,,Annual report, 2006,2007 and 2008] In conclusion, Marks Spencer has been experienced a period of decreasing sales and had acknowledged numerous issues for their recovery strategy, which mainly on their clothing range with pricing quality, fit, segmentation, product appeal and availability. Then, the company was aiming to offer something for everyone with better price, better quality of products and deliver quicker. For example, the Zip, Blue Harbour and Classics range of clothing, they have a big range of clothing lines to offer new and current customers. Marks Spencer is doing well at the moment and officially has been recovered already. The sales of these two years have been increased. However, the market and consumer behaviour is always changing rapidly. The company should not be too proud of their sales profits. It is recommended for Marks Spencer continues to concentrate on their marketing communication to build up a long term relationship with their customers and to regain more competitive advantages such as online or telephone delivery for food in the future. Moreover, hopefully more creative designs with a cultural based can be seen in Marks Spencer soon which to match their demanding consumers. Finally, the green strategy would help Marks Spencer into another stage by not just offering us better products, but also improving a better world.
Friday, November 22, 2019
The Crimes of Florida Death Row Inmate Emilia Carr Emilia Carr, 26, was sentenced to death for her role in the murder of Heather Strong in what authorities described as a deadly love triangle. Case Summary Josh Fulgham and Heather Strong started dating when Strong was 15 years old. Their relationship was tumultuous from the beginning, but despite it they had two children together. In 2003 the family moved from Mississippi to Marion County, Florida. Their fighting continued and over the next several years the couple fought, broke up, and then reunited several times. In June 2008, during one of their separations, Strong decided she and the children would move in with the couples friend, Benjamin McCollum. The plan was that she would be the live-in nanny for McCollums two children, but after about three weeks their relationship became intimate. Fulgham did not like that Strong lived with McCollum, even though he engaged to Emilia Carr, who had three children and was pregnant with his child. Over the next six months Fulgham stalked andÃ harassed both Strong and McCollum repeatedly and threatened them both with a gun. According to friends, Strong seemed very happy with McCollum and with her new life. They found it surprising when she decided to leave McCollum and return to Fulgham in December 2008. Carr was also surprised by the couples reunion. A few weeks into December, she was told by Fulgham that their relationship was over and that she had to move out. She told friends that she loved Fulgham and did not know how she would live without him, especially since she was pregnant with his child. By December 26, Fulgham and Strong got married; however their honeymoon was a short one. Six days into the marriage, Strong had Fulgham arrested after he threatened her with a shotgun during a heated argument. Fulgham Ã was charged with assault with a deadly weapon and remained in jail for several weeks. During that time Carr visited Fulgham and they rekindled their relationship. His mother and Carr, both who were on friendly terms with Strong, tried to get her to write a letter on Fulghams behalf, but she refused. During one such attempt, witnesses said Carr became so enraged by Strongs refusal to help get Fulgham released from jail, that she pulled her hair and held a knife to her neck. She only relinquished the knife after being held in a choke-hold by a mutual friend, James Acome. Hiring a Hit Man James Acome once dated Carr and she believed he was the father of her youngest child, although he never acknowledged it. He was also friends with Strong and Fulgham. In early January, while visiting Carr who was in the advanced stage of pregnancy with Fulghams child, she asked Acome and his friend, JasonÃ Lotshaw, if they would kill Strong for $500. They rejected her proposal. She told another friend to help her put the word out that she would pay someone $500 to kill Strong. She said that she planned to use her income tax refund to pay for the job. No one applied for the job. Acome and Strong In mid-January, Acome and Strong began dating and moved into an apartment together on January 26, 2009.Ã A week later Fulgham was released from jail and he moved in with his mother. Strong Disappears On February 15, Fulgham asked his mother to help him compose a letter for Strong to sign, giving him custody of their two children. This was motivated by Carr, who informed Fulgham while he was still in jail that Strong was planning on leaving the state with the children.Ã On that same day Strong left work after receiving an emergency phone call about her children. Around mid-day on the same day, Fulghams mother saw her son and Strong driving away from her home. Later that evening Acome returned home from work and found that Strong and her children had moved out. He then received a call from Fulgham who told him that he and Strong were back together. Reported as Missing On February 24, 2009, Misty Strong contacted the Marion County Sheriffs office and reported that her cousin Heather Strong had disappeared. The investigation led to Carr and Fulgham who were brought in for questioning. Over the course of several days and multiple interviews, both Carr and Fulgham blamed each other for the murder of Heather Strong. The Murder According to investigators, Fulgham and Carr plotted together to kill Strong because of his earlier arrest and because she had refused Fulghams request for custody of their children and was planning to move them to another state. On February 15, Fulgham lured Strong to a mobile home that was being used for storage and that was located on the property where Carrs family lived. Fulgham told Strong that Carr had hidden money inside the storage trailer. Once the two were inside, Carr, who was seven months pregnant, entered the trailer as planned. Seeing Carr frightened Strong and she attempted to leave the trailer, but Fulgham wrestled her back inside. Fulgham then tied Strong to a chair from which she managed to escape. Then Carr used duct tape to tape her body and hands to the chair while Fulgham held her down. Strong began crying and begging to be released. Instead, Fulgham forced her to sign the custody letter that his mother had helped him prepare. Carr said Fulgham broke the flashlight that she was carrying, when he used it to hit Strong over the head. He then placed a garbage bag over her head while Carr pulled off enough duct tape to wind around Strongs neck, which tightened the bag. Carr then made two failed attempts to break Strongs neck. When that did not work, Fulgham covered Strongs nose and mouth with his hand and suffocated her to death. Two days later, Fulgham returned to the trailer and buried Strongs body in a shallow grave nearby. Fulgham ended up disclosing the location of Strongs body to the detectives while he was being interviewed about her disappearance. He also told them that Carr was responsible for his estranged wifes death. Carr was being questioned at the same time and told detectives that Fulgham was the killer, but her story changed several times. Physical and forensic evidence found at the trailer, in the shallow grave and on Strongs body gave investigators enough to arrest both Carr and Fulgham and charge them with first-degree murder and kidnapping. Take Your Pick Unknown to Carr, Fulghams sister agreed to cooperate with the police. Carr trusted her and would often cry on her shoulder, not knowing her conversations were being recorded. What she told Fulgmans sister about the murder was completely different than what she told the police. At first she said she had not seen Strong since January 2009. Next she said she had information about Fulgham who she said told her that he killed Strong. That changed to discovering Strongs body inside the trailer a day after Fulgham committed the murder. She then admitted to seeing Fulgham kill Strong, which led to her final confession that she helped Fulgham carry out the plan to murder Strong. In her final admission before her trial, she provided investigators with information that proved her involvement; including an accurate description of a blanket and suitcase that she and Fulgham used when burying Strong, as well as a description of the clothing Strong was wearing when she was murdered. She also led police to Strongs shoes that had not been found on the body or in the grave. The Trial At her arraignment in April 2009 Carr waived her right to a speedy trial. Immediately afterwards, lead prosecutor Rock Hooker filed notice of his intent to pursue the death penalty. The trial began on December 1, 2010. State Attorney Brad King, the lead prosecutor, had built the case on circumstantial evidence. There was no real physical evidence found that proved Carr had anything to do with Strongs murder. However, several witnesses lined up to give testimony that they were asked by Carr to kill, or help her find someone to kill, her boyfriends estranged wife, Heather Strong. There was also testimony given about the time Carr held a knife to Strongs throat when she refused to drop charges against Fulgham after he threatened her with a shotgun. However, the most damaging evidence the prosecution presented were videos of Carr telling the police different versions of what happened the night of the murder.Ã He also presented the tape recordings of Carr talking to Fulgmans sister Michele Gustafson, who was working with the police. Carr supplied a detailed account of what inside the trailer, which contradicted her previous statements to police that she never entered the trailer on the night Strong was murdered. On the tape jurors clearly heard Carr talking about her attempts to break Strongs neck and how she thought it would be quick and painless. She also admitted to Gustafson that Strong fought off Fulgham, but that she helped him restrain her and that they duct taped her to a chair. She also said that she intended to tell authorities that Jamie Acome and Jason Lotshaw were responsible for the murder; although she left out that she had already implicated Fulgham. Carr described how Fulgham hit Strong hard on her head with the flashlight each time she said something that he did not like and finally how she placed the garbage bag over Strongs head and how Fulgham suffocated her to death. The jury deliberated for two and a half hours and found Carr guilty of kidnapping and first-degree murder. Penalty Phase During the penalty phase of the trial, defense attorney Candace Hawthorne spoke about the abuse Carr experienced as a child.Ã Members of Carrs family testified that she was traumatized as young child after being sexually abused by her father and grandfather. It had little impact on the jury who, in a slim 7-5 vote, recommended that Carr, age 26, receive the death penalty. Having remained silent since her arrest, Carr spoke out to the press after the jury voted for death. In yet another version of what happened, she said that she had never gone into the trailer and in fact did not even know that Fulgham and Strong were there. In reference to the secret tape recording that police had of her admitting her involvement to Fulgmans sister, she said that she was trying to get details about the murder to give to the State Attorney so that she could get immunity and get her children back. She needed details, so she made up stories. She said she felt pressure to make up things after the police threatened her with her children. In February 22, 2011, Circuit Judge Willard Pope formally sentenced Carr to life imprisonment on the kidnapping charges and death for the murder charges.Ã On February 23, 2011, Carr was moved to death row at Lowell Correctional Institution in Marion County, Florida. Fulgham Gets Off Easy Joshua Fulgham went on trial a year later. He was also found guilty of first-degree murder and kidnapping. His defense lawyer asked the jury to consider a life sentence because he suffered from mental and sexual abuse. The jury returned an 8-4 vote for a life sentence. Circuit Judge Brian Lambert upheld the jurys decision and Fulgham was given a life sentence with the possibility of parole.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
After reading chapter 6 and 7 of the textbook, Philosophy the Power of Ideas, answer the following questions - Assignment Example ne Descartes, however, realized that although he could doubt everything else, he could not doubt his very own existence because existence is a sine qua non for doubting. His doubting self/existence therefore became the starting point of his theory of knowledge. Having proved his existence, Rene Descartes went on to prove the existence of God. Descartes argued that since doubting is less perfect than to know/knowledge, he was an imperfect being; Descartes realized that there must be a perfect being that does not doubt, a being that knows everything. Descartes concluded that the perfect being is God. Descartes, therefore, argued that God is the truth and all other things share in the truth of God. God therefore became the metaphysical basis of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ Epistemology. Descartes concluded that everything that we can conceive clearly and distinctly is true because it is a participation God, the truth itself. An evaluation of Descartes theory of knowledge shows that the theory was a phenomenal milestone in Philosophy, the theory challenged Philosophers to base their arguments only on logical truths, rather than, on believes and doctrines that have no logical basis. Question 2. Thomas Hobbes was a thorough going materialist. Hobbes argued that all reality is material, including thoughts, feelings and ideas. Hobbes argued that all reality in the universe can be explained in material form, i.e. in terms of the motions and the interactions of material bodies. For this reason, Hobbes denied existence of any immaterial reality. For this reason, Hobbes saw human beings as machines, operating solely according to the physical laws; For Hobbes therefore all human actions can be explained in terms of cause and effect. An evaluation of this theory reveals one glaring shortcoming: Hobbes did not give a sufficient and convincing account of how human thoughts and ideas are material in nature; Hobbes did not give a convincing argument on how the motions and interactions of
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Macroeconomics - Essay Example Industry A Industry A has 20 firms and a (CR) of 20%. The Concentration Ratio is centered around how much of the market is controlled by the firms involved, in this case with 20 firms and a (CR) of 20% the controlled value is low. (Concentration Ratio, 2011 p 1) This implies that the industry is either highly competitive industry. This means that every involved organization in this particular industry is able to enter and exit the market with low barriers. This industry type could be termed a Ã¢â¬Å"perfect competitionÃ¢â¬ however, because it has a (CR) of 20% it is also close to an oligopoly. To be a Ã¢â¬Å"perfect competitionÃ¢â¬ the characteristics would need to include, all firms selling the same products, all firms involved being price takers, all firms having a relatively small market share, buyer knowing what is being sold and for how much and the ability to enter and exit the market. (Perfect Competition, 2011 p 1) In this environment the ability to enter the market wit h low to no barriers will allow for more competition to be available. The long term adjustments would need to be expecting lower prices and normal profits. The (CR) will remain low in this industry model due to greater competition. Industry B Industry B has 20 firms and a (CR) of 85% which places it in the oligopoly to monopoly range in business types. An oligopoly is characterized by a few dominant firms and many small ones, standardized and differentiated product depending on the industry, power of dominant firms over pricing, barriers to becoming a dominant firm and the use of non-price competition due to fear of price wars. (Petroff, 2002 para. 2) A monopoly however, is a situation where a single company or group owns the entire market, or close to it. Because this tends to mean it is a business that has a single firm it would not necessarily apply in this case. (Monopoly, 2011 p 1) To figure out the proper concentration ratio it is necessary to use the Herfindahl-Hirschman Inde x, Ã¢â¬Å"a commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the market share of each firm competing in the market and then summing the resulting numbers.Ã¢â¬ (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, ND) Conclusion Industry A would be appropriate for a small business given the ability to enter and exit with relative ease. This however, should not discount the possibility of Industry BÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to control a market and pricing as well. The entry barriers may be insurmountable in this industry type though the rewards could be significantly greater. Given the available information Industry A seems to be the best approach for a small business venture. Reference page Concentration Ratio,. (2011). Concentration ratio, investopedia.com. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/concentrationratio.asp Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, . (ND). The herfindahl-hirschman index, justice.gov. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/atr/public/testimony/hhi.htm Monopo ly,. (2011). Monopoly definition, investopedia.com. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/monopoly.asp Perfect Competition,. (2011). Perfect competition, investopedia.com. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/perfectcompetition.asp Petroff, J. (2002). Oligopoly characteristics. Professional Educational Organization International Retrieved from http://www.peoi.org/Courses/mic/mic7.html Memo follows- TO: Managing director FROM: (insert your name) DATE:
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Damaging property Essay Much of Marlowes life would have brought much controversy. Christopher was reputation as a spy, a continuous blasphemer, a tough street-fighter and an openly gay homosexual did not let a lot of people love him.Ã Although the fight that resulted in his death is the only situation where there is evidence of Marlowe assaulting a person, he had a history of trouble with the law. Marlowe was arrested in London dating September 1589 following a brawl in which Thomas Watson killed a man named William Bradley. The jury found that Marlowe was not involved with Williams death and Watson was found to have acted in self-defense. In September 1592 in Canterbury, he was charged with damaging property. The other accusations of Marlowe being a homosexual or an atheist has no inconclusive evidence to prove these statements. My personal opinion, I think that Marlowe was accused of being gay and an atheist and accused being the key word. There are too many instances where people were accused of something during this time and killed over it. For example, the witch hunts that killed thousands of women after the Dark Ages. All because people were lead to believe that women could fly on brooms. So it is not far stretched to think that Marlowe may have been persecuted against for some trouble that he might have been linked too. These questions might never be answered. Marlowe was above all an admired artist for his time in the literary world. Within weeks of his death, George Peele referred to him as Marley, the Muses darling. Marlowes last name is actually another question. He was referred by different versions of his last name: Marl, Marlowe, Marley, and Merle. But the meaning of Muse is actually Greek mythology. The Muses were Any of the nine daughters of Mnemosyne and Zeus, each of whom presided over a different art or science. People did not understand why someone could be so gifted at one thing and not the other so it must have been the gods that blessed man with these gifts. Not to say that George Peele worshiped the Greek gods but he is only admiring Christopher Marlowes talents. As far as Christopher Marlowes career is considered, his work was glorified after his death. Obviously no one knew of the impact that his writing would have on English literature and the influence it would have on Shakespeares play writes. Shakespeare mastered blank verse after Marlowe introduced it into theatre. But even so, critics of his time recognized his talents. Robert Greene (1560?-1592) says who hat said with thee, There is no God, should now give glorie unto his greatnesse. It is in that line that gives proof that people immediately recognized his talents. Modern Criticism defiantly did what Robert Greene and glorifies his talents as well as his life. Todays critics also make some outrageous assumptions about Christopher. But for such little knowledge on someone and so many speculations in his life, people cannot help but to be intrigued with the mans career.Ã Christopher MarloweA man who has no certain last name. A man who was incognito during a certain point of his life. A man believed in being a spy. A man who was a street fighter. A man who was believed to be a homosexual. A man who was believed in being an atheist. A man who was trouble with the law. A man who introduced blank verse to theatre. A man who faked his death. Christopher Marlowe is a man of unanswered questions, but what is for certain is his impact with the English language. Bibliography Jonathan Bate. Danger down in Deptford The murder of Christopher Marlowe continues to fuel conspiracy theories, says Jonathan Bate. The Sunday Telegraph 23 Oct. 2005, ProQuest Newsstand, ProQuest. Web. 27 Jun. 2010. Jeffrey Meyers. Marlowes Lives. Michigan Quarterly Review 42.3 (2003): 468. Platinum Periodicals, ProQuest. Web. 27 Jun. 2010. Ed. Judith Oneill. Critics on Marlowe. Florida: University of Miami, 1970. Ed. Emily C. Bartels. Critical Essays on Christopher Marlowe. Florida: University of Miami, 1997
Thursday, November 14, 2019
AddisonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã AddisonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is a disorder of the endocrine system. It is a hormonal disorder that can strike anyone, any gender at any age. AddisonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease has also been called Adrenal Insufficiency (hypocortisolism) because the root of the disease is in the adrenal gland not producing enough of the hormone cortisol, or sometimes not enough of the hormone aldosterone to satisfy the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cortisol is in the class of hormones called glucocorticoids and affects almost every organ in the body. One of the most important functions of cortisol is to help regulate the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s response to stress. Cortisol is also responsible for other necessary functions including: helping to maintain blood pressure and cardiovascular functions, helping to slow the immune systemÃ¢â¬â¢s inflammatory response, helping to balance the effects of insulin in breaking down sugars for energy, helping to regulate the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, and helping to maintain proper arousal of sense of well being. The amount of cortisol is precisely balanced and regulated by the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothalamus. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Aldosterone is in a class of hormones called mineralocorticoids which is also produced by the adrenal glands. The main functions of aldosterone are to help to maintain blood pressure and helping the kidneys retain needed sodium and excrete unwanted potassium to maintain the balance of water and salt in the body. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When adrenal insufficiency occurs, there are many s... Addison's Disease Essay -- Disorder Endocrine System AddisonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã AddisonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is a disorder of the endocrine system. It is a hormonal disorder that can strike anyone, any gender at any age. AddisonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease has also been called Adrenal Insufficiency (hypocortisolism) because the root of the disease is in the adrenal gland not producing enough of the hormone cortisol, or sometimes not enough of the hormone aldosterone to satisfy the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cortisol is in the class of hormones called glucocorticoids and affects almost every organ in the body. One of the most important functions of cortisol is to help regulate the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s response to stress. Cortisol is also responsible for other necessary functions including: helping to maintain blood pressure and cardiovascular functions, helping to slow the immune systemÃ¢â¬â¢s inflammatory response, helping to balance the effects of insulin in breaking down sugars for energy, helping to regulate the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, and helping to maintain proper arousal of sense of well being. The amount of cortisol is precisely balanced and regulated by the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothalamus. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Aldosterone is in a class of hormones called mineralocorticoids which is also produced by the adrenal glands. The main functions of aldosterone are to help to maintain blood pressure and helping the kidneys retain needed sodium and excrete unwanted potassium to maintain the balance of water and salt in the body. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When adrenal insufficiency occurs, there are many s...
Monday, November 11, 2019
In recent years it has been said that China is far surpassing the United States in terms of education. This raises the problem of Americans falling behind in global competitiveness which encompasses in all aspects of a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. There is said to be a major correlation between parenting styles and the overall countryÃ¢â¬â¢s competiveness considering education, values, and work ethic is implemented in the home through parenting styles before a child ever reaches institutionalized schooling.Many persons believe American parenting lacks discipline and structure and believe Americans should adapt a more Chinese style parenting, while many other persons believe that Americans should stay with their parenting style to increase global competitiveness. The problem of Americans falling global competiveness can be addressed in several ways however looking specifically at parenting styles affects, it boils down to a solution either of keeping the same parenting style, or transf erring to a more Chinese parenting style. However an understanding of what a competitive society is, is crucial to objectively find the solution to the problem.A competitive society is based off of 12 pillars according to the 2012- 2013 Global Competitiveness Report conducted by the World Economic forum. The first nine pillars of the Global Competitiveness Report consist of institutions, infrastructure, the macro-economic environment, market size, business sophistication, good market efficiency, labor market efficiency, financial market development and technological readiness. These first 9 pillars are all primarily focused on the government regulations and productivity of business.The last three pillars, although still affecting productivity, stems from education. They include health and primary education, higher education and training, and Innovation. The health and primary education pillar is self-explanatory. Stressing the need for healthy and competent workers, it explains that even basic education increases each individual workerÃ¢â¬â¢s efficiency. Workers, who have received minimal primary education, are limited to simple manual tasks and find it more difficult to adapt to the advanced production processes. Higher education and training correlates with the previous pillar.Also advocating for higher education in the work place, it dictates that a society cannot remain competitive without the ability of workers to perform more complex tasks determined by the evolving needs of the economy. The twelfth pillar, is innovation. Innovation is so important because unlike the other factors affecting the economy, technological innovations will continue to raise living standards and positively affect the global economy over time. Innovations open a wider range of possibilities and approach the frontier of knowledge which in turn greatly advances an economy.American parenting can best be classified into the category of Authoritative Parenting. Finding a balance be tween support and control, parents of the authoritarian method believe the best way to parent is to support their children in their goals in a positive manner; while still maintaining boundaries and rules. Authoritative parents are said to have found the Ã¢â¬Å"happy medianÃ¢â¬ . Authoritative Parents execute their method by being very responsive, affectionate, stern, and understanding. These parents express their love for their children unconditionally, and do not take away their love as a punishment.Instead, punishments are implemented with mutual understanding of the wrong doing and the appropriate consequence. Authoritative Parents believe parenting is a two way street, and therefore attempt to consider their childÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective equally to their own. American parentÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives for their children generally do not lie solely within Academics. Wishing the best for their children overall, they stress the needs of other factors including, sociability, individuality, self-reliance, happiness, and self-motivation. This information on Authoritative Parenting is derived from an article by Gwen Dewar.Despite a slight biased towards Authoritative noted, it is reliable. It considers other factors in parenting, and asses its own argument, and also presents the same information on parenting as other trustworthy sources. The first graph to the right shows the GDP per captia, compared to the scale of Global Innovation index determined by the organization itself. The sizes of the bubbles are based off of population. As you can see, China lags far behind the USA in terms of the innovation spectrum. The second graph to the left shows this again.The United States are rated 57.7 in their innovation performance, while China isnÃ¢â¬â¢t even on the map. However it should be noted, that to the side of the diagram is a box where it shows who is innovating most effectively, and the gold of this category belongs to China. There is an overwhelming amount of scienti fic support for the American Parenting style in the United States; however, it should be considered that the majority of studies that support this method primarily focus on white American students, and not the effect of this method on other cultures.Also, it should be noted that the majority of sources supporting this method are either American or European, which are areas that Authoritative Parenting styles dominate. Looking from an American perspective therefore it would be the overall consensus that American parenting style is superior and that American parents shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t drastically change their methods in order to raise the overall competiveness of the nation. Chinese Parenting can be considered as authoritarian parenting. These parents believe by showing very low support, but also being highly demanding and restrictive, they will best rear their children.Authoritarian parents execute their method by setting high expectations for their children. These expectations lie sol ely with academics and the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes for the child. Expectations in this style of parenting, that are set, are undisputable. Communication between the parent and the child are one way, with the parent in control. Authoritative Parents of this method have been heard to degrade their children, threaten them, and lie to them, in order to motivate them. Parents also might withdrawal of their love and affection as a punishment to their children not living up to these set expectations.And while this might seem harsh to an American mother, it is to other cultures, devotion. By pushing their children to the best they can be, they are thought to be doing what is best for the child. Chinese parentÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives for their children revolve around complete perfection. They wish for their children to excel at academics, be extremely obedient, and possibly even master the violin. These expectations are extremely high, but their intense method makes it possible. An example of a s tereo typical Chinese household would be Amy ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s.In Ã¢â¬Å"The Hymn of the Tiger MotherÃ¢â¬ she explained her method of restrictions, and her expectations of raising her two daughters. Amy ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s children were forbidden from attending a sleepover; having a play date, be in a school play, complain about not being in a school play, watch TV or play computer games, choose their own extracurricular activities or get any grade less than an A. These standards were high and some could say harsh, but Amy Chua produced success American parents all over the country were appalled by the intensity of Mrs. ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s parenting style; however not many parents can produce Yale students such as Amy ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s has.In Amy ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s household success was produced, and looking overall at Chinese parents, many other parents have produced success also. The following graph shows the number of PhDs the U. S. earned compared to the number of PhDs China has earned in the 2002 to 2010 span. As you can see China has had a drastic increasing in the amount of PhDs earned, while the US has had a much more modest growth. This can be attributed to the stress of education in Chinese households. In 2010, China surpassed the US in terms of PhDs. Also it has been proven that China is ahead of the United States when it comes to the OECD reading school score.Standardized testing is important when it comes to a competitive society because these tests measure education, and education is crucial to any work force. When considering whether or not the Chinese method is superior, it must be noted that the lack of warmth and affection can harm a childÃ¢â¬â¢s social functions, and lead to a dependence on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family. It also should be recognized that sources used were primarily written by American authors and researches in a negative light, therefore it was my responsibility to arrange the information in a way that supported the Chinese method of parenting.American p arenting raises stable, academically well rounded, and creative students who contribute effectively to the nation, and as seen, in terms of global competitiveness, the U. S. and China are neck and neck. The U. S. is superior in creativity, while China is superior in standardized testing. Both these factors are crucial to a global economy considering they translate into the innovation pillar and the educated work force pillar. Therefore the US might lag behind in terms of standardized tests but they nation makes up for it in the Innovation index.Chinese and American styles of parenting promote different values and therefore produce children who excel at different aspects. I also believe that the more successful parenting style depends on the culture. Culture determines which method is more effective because parenting styles are embedded and formed by each individual culture. Implanting a foreign parenting style that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t correlate with local beliefs would be detrimental for a child due to social pressures, the conflicts of beliefs, and the collision of school and the home.For example, an American child would not respond well to authoritarian parenting because of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"modern, expressiveÃ¢â¬ culture, as a Chinese child would not respond well to authoritative parenting because of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"traditional, conformedÃ¢â¬ culture. The conflict between society and parenting styles would lead the child astray, and away from success. Therefore the United States Authoritative parenting style is most effective because another parenting style wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t flow with parentÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs or objectives and would actually decrease AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s global competiveness.The problem of America falling behind in global competiveness can not be solved by adapting to a more Chinese style parenting. As previously mentioned, the U. S. parenting style creates children that excel at other aspects than simply just standardized testing. Al so another parenting style would clash with belief systems and cause detrimental harm to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development, and eventual success. Therefore the solution is to stay with the original parenting styles. This might appear as a rudimentary solution to a very complex issue however when specifically looking at parenting styles, it is the best way to achieve high global competiveness,
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Air IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Maharaja which came into existence in the year 1946 and the Amul girl in 1967 are the mascots which captured the hearts of one and all in India. These mascots caught the attention of the consumers as they were charming and connected well with the consumers. Indian corporate have also seen few other mascots like Fido the cool swanky doodle of 7 Up, doughboy the sweet little butler of Godrej Pillsbury, Gattu who build brand Asian Paint, Chintamani who endorsed ICICI, Sunny who is creating magic with Sunfeast. The success of these mascots can be qualified by, the increase in the brand value of these brands consumer connect. Decline of mascot power The Indian market grew at a fast pace in nineties everything from pencils to cars, salt to luxury goods required an advertising campaign this was the time when we saw emergence of celebrity advertising and mascots lost their appeal. We also lived in a time when there was no argument regarding the fact that a celebrity can make or break a brand. The pampering and recognition given to the celebrity in the marketing of the product in some cases was even greater than the product itself. The advertising world, during this time strongly believed that the celebrities transfer their success, personality, status and power to the brand. They attributed reasons for the growth of celebrity endorsements to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Create great brand awareness for product Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sustaining the brand image Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stimulating and reviving brands Ã¢â¬ ¢ Product association However, the advertising world also realized that many brand ambassadors does not practice what they preach and sometimes controversies and unpleasant incidents connected with the celebrity causes damage. It is also observed that over exposure and multiple endorsements too can damage the image of product. The Indian market which is saturated with celebrity endorsements has seen emergence of the mascots. Emergence of the mascots The courage and optimism that common man of R. K. Laxman portrays and a middle-class Indian, that Chintamani portrays is certainly unmatched but the new age mascots are more attractive, and trendy. The advertisers have become more creative with the use of animation. The new age mascots have a lasting appeal and create a whole new persona for the product. They manage the product as efficiently as a celebrity. Moreover, in the current marketing scenario when the celebrity charisma diminishing away the world of advertising is turning back to mascots. Celebrities get associated with too many products and therefore it is difficult to relate them with one particular brand, which is not the case with the mascots. For an example Shahrukh Khan endorse brands such as Pepsi, Airtel, Santro, Emami , and many more but Fido is just associated with 7Up. The strength of mascots lies in its uniqueness, and its power of effectively communicating the ethos of the brand like, Chintamani solves all our worries related to tax savings and good returns paving a new way for no chinta, Share Khan tell us how to smartly invest in stocks and reap rich dividends, Gattu with the brush in his hand and the smile on his face passes the message that a bright coat of paint will brighten up the house. Moreover the mascots are not as expensive as celebrities. The cost of creating these characters is as low as development of a normal commercial. Lowe Advertising creative director Delna Sethna claims that the first Chintamani ad cost around Rs 7 lakh. Moreover, the animated characters also give more scope for creative-flexibility. Mascots are dynamic and they adapt with changing times. We should acknowledge how the Amul girl in polka dots has changed overtime, and Fido has makeovers with the changing time. The advertising world has also observed that the popularity of any mascot is not only based on the response they get, but also depend on the fact that these faces have a higher recall value. Conclusion The Amul girl was born in 1967 is still a popular mascot. She may soon enter into the Guinness Book of World Records as the oldest campaign to survive in the market. This goes on to prove that the mascots are more appropriate brand ambassadors. The impact and success of the mascot, depends on how effectively it conveys the brand values and the ideals that consumers would associate with.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
UniformsGood or Bad essays What do policemen, basketball players and even hotel chefs have in common? They all wear uniforms which help identify their profession and positions. For many parents, teachers and students, the widely debated issue of mandatory uniforms in schools has caused concerns. Those who oppose school uniforms believe that fundamental rights to express oneself are violated. On the other hand, parents and school officials firmly believe that it is beneficial to the school and the students. Uniforms in schools are essential in order to create discipline, unity and tolerance for others among students. It can be observable that discipline provides for a safer learning environment, unity because everyone feels like part of the "team", also tolerance because no one is judged based on their personal styles and family income. To parents and teachers, the primary concern is for students to dress in appropriate attire which would create a healthier environment within the schools. From the perspective of the students, some oppose the idea of wearing uniforms at school. Students are worried that their individuality and freedom of expression will be suppressed. On the contrary, students should not have to show their individuality superficially through the way they dress. Many students follow trends in clothing, but by doing this, they are actually denying their own individuality be copying what others are wearing. They possess other noticeable characteristics that mould their personalities. Individuality can be expressed through thoughts, actions, and words. If your sense of individuality is based on your clothing, then you are lacking originality. Uniforms, no matter how it is regulated, will never be able to hide a student's truly radiant and unique personality. As a result, uniforms can not destroy individ ualism. First, students have a right to enjoy a safe and fun school environment. By having, students wear uniforms, it separates people that belo...
Monday, November 4, 2019
In 1992, two years into construction, the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s top managers recommended inclusion of an airport-wide integrated baggage-handling system that could dramatically improve the efficiency of luggage delivery. Originally contracted by United Airlines to cover its operations, the system was to be expanded to serve the entire airport. It was expected that the integrated system would improve ground time efficiency, reduce close-out time for hub operations, and decrease time-consuming manual baggage sorting and handling. There were, however, a number of risks inherent in the endeavor: the scale of the large project size; the enormous complexity of the expanded system; the newness of the technology; the large number of resident entities to be served by the same system; the high degree of technical and project definition uncertainty; and the short time span for completion. Due to its significant experience implementing baggage-handling technology on a smaller scale, BAE Automated Systems Inc. , an engineering consulting and manufacturing company based in Carollton, Texas, was awarded the contract. Construction problems kept the new airport from opening on the originally scheduled opening date in October 1993. Subsequently, problems with the implementation of the baggage system forced delays in the opening of the airport another three times in seven months. In May 1994, under growing pressure from shareholders, the business community, Denver residents, Federal 1Fred Isaac, Federal Aviation Administration regional administrator, quoted in Ã¢â¬Å"Denver Still Working Out Kinks as Its First Birthday Arrives,Ã¢â¬ USA Today (February 28, 1996), p. 4b. Fred Renville, United Airlines employee quoted in Ã¢â¬Å"Denver Still Working Out Kinks as Its First Birthday Arrives,Ã¢â¬ USA Today (February 28, 1996), p. 4b. Assistant Professor Ramiro Montealegre and Research Associate H. James Nelson of the University of Colorado at Boulder, Research Associate Carin Isabel Knoop, and Professor Lynda M. Applegate prepared this case as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate e ither effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. Some names have been disguised. Copyright Ã © 1996 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685 or write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any meansÃ¢â¬âelectronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwiseÃ¢â¬âwithout the permission of Harvard Business School. 1 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 396-311 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System Aviation Administration (FAA) commissioners, and the tenant airlines and concessionaires, Denver mayor Wellington Webb announced that he was hiring the German firm Logplan to help assess the state of the automated baggage system. In July, Logplan issued an 11-page report to the City of Denver that characterized BAEÃ¢â¬â¢s system as Ã¢â¬Å"highly advancedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"theoretically capable of living up to its promised Ã¢â¬Å"capacities, services and performances,Ã¢â¬ but acknowledged mechanical and electrical problems that Ã¢â¬Å"make it most improbable to achieve a stable and reliable operation. Logplan suggested that it would take approximately five months to get the complete BAE system working reliably. It also suggested that a backup system of tugs, carts, and conveyor belts could be constructed in less than five months. In August 1994, Mayor Webb approved the construction of a backup baggage system. At the same time, he notified BAE of a $12,000-a-day penalty for not fi nishing the baggage system by DIAÃ¢â¬â¢s original October 29, 1993 completion date. Webb also demanded that BAE pay for the $50 million conventional tug-and-cart baggage system. Gene Di Fonso, President of BAE, knew that his company could demonstrate that flaws in the overall design of the airport and an unsystematic approach to project changes had affected implementation of the integrated baggage system. He wondered whether he should just cancel the contract and cut his losses, or attempt to negotiate with the city for the support required to finish the system as specified, despite the severe deterioration in communication and rising hostility. Could the problems with the automated system be overcome with the dedication of additional resources? Given that the system represented a significant departure from conventional technology, would reducing its size and complexity facilitate resolution of the problems that plagued it? And, if the city could be persuaded to accept a simplified system, would the tenant airlines, particularly those with hubbing operations that had been promised more advanced functionality and better performance, be likely to sue? Building the Most Efficient Airport in the World Until about 1970, DenverÃ¢â¬â¢s Stapleton Airport had managed to accommodate an ever-growing number of airplanes and passengers. Its operational capacity was severely limited by runway layout; Stapleton had two parallel north-south runways and two additional parallel east-west runways that accommodated only commuter air carriers. DenverÃ¢â¬â¢s economy grew and expanded greatly in the early 1980s, consequent to booms in the oil, real estate, and tourism industries. An aging and saturated Stapleton Airport was increasingly seen as a liability that limited the attractiveness of the region to the many businesses that were flocking to it. Delays had become chronic. Neither the north-south nor east-west parallel runways had sufficient lateral separation to accommodate simultaneous parallel arrival streams during poor weather conditions when instrument flight rules were in effect. This lack of runway separation and the layout of StapletonÃ¢â¬â¢s taxiways tended to cause delays during high-traffic periods, even when weather conditions were good. DenverÃ¢â¬â¢s geographic location and the growing size of its population and commerce made it an attractive location for airline hubbing operations. At one point, Stapleton had housed four airline hubs, more than any other airport in the United States. In poor weather and during periods of hightraffic volume, however, its limitations disrupted connection schedules that were important to maintaining these operations. A local storm could easily congest air traffic across the entire United States. 3 3According to James Barnes , Ã¢â¬Å"By 1994, Stapleton was one of the top five most constrained airports in the US. There were over 50,000 hours of delay in 1988 and by 1997 the FAA had projected that Stapleton would experience over 100,000 hours of delay per year. Ã¢â¬ 2 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System 396-311 The City and County of Denver had determined in the mid-1970s that Stapleton International Airport was in need of expansion or replacement. In July 1979, a study to assess the airports needs was commissioned by the City of Denver to the Denver Regional Council of Governments. Upon completion of the study in 1983, a report was issued saying that, due to its size and geographic location, and strong commitments by United and Continental Airlines, Denver would remain a significant hub for at least one major U. S. arrier. The study recommended expansion of StapletonÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity. Political Situation4 The City of DenverÃ¢â¬â¢s 1983 mayoral race precipitated initiatives to improve the airfield infrastructure. Three candidates were vying for mayor: Monte Pascoe, Dale Tooley, and Frederico Pena. Pascoe, a prominent Denver attorney and former State Democratic Party co-chair, seized upon the airport i ssue, forcing other candidates to adopt stronger positions on airport expansion than they might have otherwise. 5 Pena and Tooley, however, drew the highest numbers of votes in the general election, and were forced into a runoff. At the persistent urging of the Colorado Forum (a collection of 50 of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s top business executives), Pena and Tooley signed a joint statement committing themselves to airport expansion. Pena won the runoff. Committed by a public promise that could have been enforced, if necessary, by the most highly motivated members of the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s business leadership, Pena immediately restated his intent to expand Stapleton. The City of Denver and neighboring Adams County began to develop plans for long-term airport development in 1984. In 1985, a new site northeast of Denver was chosen. Consummation of the airport siting issue, however, was left to Adams County voters, which had to vote to permit the City of Denver to annex property therein. The city hired a consulting firm to help organize its resources and its efforts to work through the legal process. The data that was gathered through the master planning and environmental assessment later proved useful for public education. An Ã¢â¬Å"Annexation AgreementÃ¢â¬ between Adams County and the City of Denver was reached on April 21, 1988. Adams Country voters approved a plan to let Denver annex 43. 3 square miles for the construction of an airport. In a special election on May 16, 1989, voters of Denver endorsed a Ã¢â¬Å"New AirportÃ¢â¬ by a margin of 62. 7% to 37. 3%. According to Edmond, Ã¢â¬Å"Those two referendums passed largely on the merits of the economic benefits: jobs and sales tax revenues. Ã¢â¬ Economic Considerations A number of trends and events in the mid-1980s alarmed bank economists and other of the regions business leaders in the mid-1980s. The collapse of oil shale ventures between 1982 and 1986 saw mining employment fall from 42,000 to 26,000 jobs, while service support jobs fell from 25,300 jobs to 13,700. Construction jobs fell from 50,700 to 36,600 jobs, and the value of private construction plummeted from $24 billion to $9. 5 billion. 7 A lackluster economy led many government officials in counties and municipalities as well as in Denver to embark upon an unprecedented policy of massive public construction to save the region from what was regarded in 1987 as an economic free-fall. A $180 million-plu s municipal bond was issued for public improvements, including a new downtown library, neighborhood and major roadway improvements, and a host of overdue infrastructure investments. During the same period, 4Extracted from: Moore, S. T. : Ã¢â¬Å"Between Growth Machine and Garbage Can: Determining Whether to Expand the Denver Airport, 1982-1988,Ã¢â¬ Annual Meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Atlanta, Georgia, November 4, 1994. 5Ibid. 6 7 Colorado Business Outlook Forum, University of Colorado School of Business, 1990. Small Area Employment Estimates; Construction Review, U. S. Department of Commerce, 1990 3 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 396-311 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System he Pena administration moved decisively to confront an increasingly aggressive Chamber of Commerce leadership that was promoting airport relocation. The determination of the Ã¢â¬Å"pro-New-AirportÃ¢â¬ clan was growing. The project was being marketed as a technologically advanced, state-of-the-art structure to draw businesses, import federal capital, and fund the creation of new job s with bonded debts to overcome the short-term decline in the economy. The airport was to become a grandiose project to revive the Colorado economy and a master showcase for the Public Works Department. The entire business community, recalled a member of the Mayors administrative team: The Chamber of Commerce, members of the city council, the mayor, and state legislators, participated in informational discussions with other cities that had recently built airports. [This enabled] everybody to understand the magnitude of the project. So we studied the other two airports that had been built in the United States in the last 50 years and said, Tell us everything that you went through and all the places you think there will be problems. We were not going into it blindly. Forecasts of aviation activity at Stapleton by the Airport Consultant team, the FAA, and others, however, did not anticipate events such as a new phase of post-deregulation consolidation, the acquisition in 1986 of Frontier Airlines by Texas Air (the owner of Continental), significant increases in air fares for flights in and out of Stapleton, and the bankruptcy of Continental. Consequently, the level of aviation activity in Denver was overestimated. Instead of rising, StapletonÃ¢â¬â¢s share of total U. S. domestic passenger enplanements fell 4% per year from 1986 through 1989. 8 The Master Plan The City of Denvers approach to preparing a master plan for the airport was typical. Ã¢â¬Å"One hires the best consultants on airfield layout, noise impacts, terminal layout, on-site roadways, off-site roadways, cost estimating, financial analysis, and forecasting,Ã¢â¬ observed DIA administrator Gail Edmond. Ã¢â¬Å"They brainstorm and generate as many alternate layouts as possible. Ã¢â¬ Alternatives were discussed and eliminated at periodic joint working sessions, and a technical subcommittee was organized to gather input from the eventual airport users, airlines, pilots, and the FAA. Ã¢â¬Å"Everybody knows how to begin an airport master plan,Ã¢â¬ Edmond added. Following a bid, the consulting contract was awarded to the joint venture of Greiner, Inc. and Morrison-Knudsen Engineers for their combined expertise in the fields of transportation and construction. The consulting team, working under the direction of the DIA Director of Aviation, focused first on four elements: site selection; the master plan; the environmental assessment; and developing support by educating the public on economic benefit. The final master plan presented to the city by the team in the fall of 1987 called for the construction of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most efficient airport. It was to be created from the ground up with no predetermined limitations. The plan was to allow the airport to grow and expand without compromising efficiency. Twice the size of Manhattan at 53 square miles, the nations largest airport was to be designed for steady traffic flow in all weather conditions. It was to comprise a terminal with east and west buildings joined by an atrium structure, three concourses, an automated underground people mover, and five parallel 12,000-foot-long runways on which as many as 1,750 planes could take off and land daily. Its flow-through traffic patterns would allow planes to land, taxi to concourse gates, and take 8 Furthermore, when selling the project to voters, planners at one point forecast up to 36 weekly flights to Europe by 1993. The number recorded in 1993, however, was four. The number of passengers departing form Denver was to rise from 16 million in 1985 to some 26 million by 1995. The 1994 figure, however, was about the same as the number of passengers in 1985, or half of StapletonÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity. 4 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] om) on April 11, 2012 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System 396-311 off again all in one direction. The ultimate buildout, projected for the year 2020, was to include up to 12 full service runways, more than 200 gates, and a capacity of 110 million passengers annually. Estimated cost (excluding land acquisition and pre-1990 planning costs) was $2 billion. By the end of 1991, the estimated cost had incr eased to $2. 66 billion. Plans called for the projects completion by the fall of 1993. In September 1989, Federal officials signed a $60 million grant agreement for the new airport, which was to be financed in multiple waysÃ¢â¬âby issuing revenue bonds and securing federal grantsÃ¢â¬â supplemented by a sizable investment by the city [county of Denver 1991]. Estimated federal grants for the new airport originally totaled $501 million. Portions of these were forthcoming from the FAA, for federal fiscal year 1990 in the amount of $90 million and for federal fiscal year 1991 in the amount of $25 million. The remainder of the $501 million letter of intent was to be received on an annual basis through fiscal year 1997. The revenue bonds assumed the Ã¢â¬Å"Date of Beneficial OccupancyÃ¢â¬ (DBO) to be January 1, 1994, with bond repayments to begin on that date. At that time, the city determined that DIA would meet the DBO no later than October 31, 1993. A member of the MayorÃ¢â¬â¢s administrative team described the approach. What we did was plan the DBO date and then we planned an extra six months just in case there was a lag in the opening, which, in essence, allowed us to create stability in the market. The other thing we did was that we conservatively financed and filled every reserve account to the maximum. So we borrowed as much money as we could at the lower interest rate and were able to average the debt cost down, not up, as we thought it would be. A Build-Design Project By the time construction began at DIA in November 1989, a transfer of authority was taking place in the City of Denver. Wellington Webb was elected the new mayor. According to one of his assistants, the Pena administration had announced that the airport would be operational in October 1993. Ã¢â¬Å"This was a build-design project, which means that we were building the airport [while] we were designing it,Ã¢â¬ he explained. Because of the delays early on in the project, we had to accelerate construction immediately. There was a lot of pressure and too many players. This was an airport built by committee. We had regular meetings to straighten things out, but it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t always work. Ã¢â¬ Although the Webb administration inherited the airport project without a commitment on the part of the major carriers, the support and input of concerned airlines were absolutely key, not only financially but also in terms of input on overall airport layout, scope, and capacity, and supporting systems such as fueling and baggage handling. Denver launched the DIA program without specific commitments from either of Stapleton airports two major tenant airlines, United and Continental, which together accounted for more than 70% of existing passenger traffic. Continental committed to the new airport in February 1990, United in December 1991. Fundamental changes were made to the airport layout plan and facilities (some already under construction) to accommodate the operational needs of these carriers. The Webb administration followed the predecessor administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on assuring that the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest beneficiaries would be local businesses. The desire was to involve as many individual firms as practicable and to use Denver area talent. It was reasoned that local talent was easily accessible to the program management team (PMT), knew Denver building codes and practices, and had available the necessary professional labor pool to accomplish the design in accordance with the demanding schedule. In addition, existing law stated that 30% minority-owned firms and 6% women-owned firms had to participate in a public works program. The result was a contracting philosophy that maximized opportunities for regional businesses and the local workforce to compete for the work. At least five of 60 contracts awarded for the design of DIA went to Denverarea firms. These 60 design contracts generated 110 construction contracts. Eighty-eight professional service contracts also had to be coordinated. Many local firms had to be hired and the program was 5 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 396-311 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System chopped up into many small projects. Involvement totaled 200 to 300 firms and reached 400 during the construction phase. Five different firms designed the runways, four the terminal. The citys emphasis on encouraging everyone to compete and yet be part of the project increased the potential for interface and coordination problems. DenverÃ¢â¬â¢s flat economy led the administration to keep construction money within the city. Although this benefited the city, it introduced an additional burden on administration. As many as 40-50 concurrent contracts involved many interrelated milestones and contiguous or overlapping operational areas. The estimated daily on-site work force population exceeded 2,500 workers for a 15 to 18-month period beginning in mid-1991 and peaked at between 9,000 and 10,000 in mid-1992. Adding to the human resource coordination problems was a forecasted 4,000 deliveries daily. Construction volume for six months in mid-1992 exceeded $100 million per month. The prolonged period of assessment and negotiation prior to final approval of the project, and the financial plan selected (which required that bond repayments begin on January 1, 1994), pressured the PMT to push the project ahead at all cost. Because the project had to assume the characteristics of a Ã¢â¬Å"fast-trackÃ¢â¬ project early in the construction startup, the compressed design period precipitated a more dynamic construction effort han might be anticipated for a competitively bid, fixed price program. Reliance on a design/build method for the project was, according to one DIA official, unusual because projects this complex normally happen during separate stages. For example, you need to finish up the site selection before you begin the master planning. Ã¢â¬ Moreover, communication channels between th e city, project management team, and consultants were neither well defined or controlled. If a contractor fell behind, a resident engineer who reported to one of the area managers said, the resident engineer would alert the contractor and document this. The resident engineer would document what would have to be done and what additional resources were necessary to get back on schedule and finish the contract on time. As a public agency it was enormous, the amount of documentation that we did. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how many trees we cut down just for this project. The resident engineer had about five to eight 12-drawer filing cabinets of documentation and this was nothing compared to what the area manager had. It was just incredible. There were at least four to six copies of everything. The scheduling manager described the evolution of the tracking system that was used. One of the biggest problems we had was keeping track of all the changes. So we developed a database system that was installed at each one of the resident engineerÃ¢â¬â¢s trailers and each contract administrator was then charged with keeping that system up to date and feeding us disks, which we would then merge together periodically to produce an integrated report. But every party had developed their own tracking system before the start of the project. That worked well for each group, but there was no way to take each one of these divergent systems and combine it into one, comprehensive report. So when we introduced the change tracking system everybody said, fine, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s wonderful, and IÃ¢â¬â¢ll update it when I get to it and when I get time. It took three years to implement the tracking system. Project Management In a fast-moving, ever-changing environment such as the development of a new airport, the management structure must be able to rapidly produce engineering alternatives and the supporting 6 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System 396-311 ost and schedule data. 9 But because DIA was financed by many sources and was a public works program, project administrators had to balance administrative, political, and social imperatives. 10 The City of Denver staff and consultant team shared leadership of the project and coordinated the initial facets of DIA design. Ã¢â¬Å"The initial thought, reflected one staff member, was that the city staff would do their thing and the consulting staff do theirs and later we would coordinate. It became evident within a very short time that we were doing duplicate duties, which was inefficient. Finally the city decided to coordinate resources. Ã¢â¬ The city selected a team of city employees and consultants and drafted a work scope document that clearly separated the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s from the consultantsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibilities. The elements the city did not delegate to consultants included ultimate policy and facility decisions, approval of payments, negotiation and execution of contracts, facilitation of FAA approvals, affirmative action, settlement of contractor claims and disputes, selection of consultants, and utility agreements. The city delegated some elements such as value engineering, construction market analysis, claim management, on-site staff and organization, and state-of-the-art project control (computerized management of budget and schedule). Exhibit 1 depicts the DIA management structure. The program management team became the organization dedicated to overseeing planning and development for the new airport. Headed by the associate director of aviation, the team was partially staffed by city career service employees. To add experience and capability, the city augmented the PMT with personnel from the joint venture of Greiner Engineering and MorrisonKnudsen Engineers, the consulting team. Observed one program management team member, Ã¢â¬Å"This working partnership of the City of Denver and consulting joint venture team developed into a fully integrated single organization, capitalizing on the best to be offered by all participants, and optimizing the use of personnel resources. Ã¢â¬ DIAÃ¢â¬â¢s operational project structure comprised five different areas subdivided into smaller units. The working areas were: site development (earthmoving, grading, and drainage); roadways and on-grade parking (service roads, on-airport roads, and off-airport roads connecting to highways); airfield paving; building design (people-mover/baggage-handler, tunnel, concourses, passenger bridge, terminal, and parking); and utility/special systems and other facilities (electrical transmission, oil, and gas line removal and relocation). An area manager controlled construction within each area. Area managers were responsible for the administration of all assigned contracts and, in coordination with other area managers, for management of the portion of the overall site in which their work took place. United AirlinesÃ¢â¬â¢ Baggage System From the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, the Ã¢â¬Å"friendlinessÃ¢â¬ of any airport is measured by time. No matter how architecturally stimulating a new airport structure, the perception of business or leisure travelers is often registered in terms of efficiency in checking luggage at the departure area or waiting to claim a bag in the arrival area. The larger the airport, the more critical the efficient handling of baggage. Remote concourses connected by underground tunnels present special problems for airport planners and operators because of the great distances passengers and baggage must travel. The purpose of an airport being to move passengers as efficiently as possible, moving bags as quickly is 9 The DIA project used the so-called fast-tracking method, which made it possible to compress some activities along the critical path and manage the construction project as a series of overlapping tasks. 0 These included considerations such as affirmative action, local participation, neighborhood concerns, civic pride, input from the disabled community, art, secondary employment benefits of contract packaging, concern for the environment, and political interest. 7 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 396-311 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System part and pa rcel of that responsibility. Rapid transport of frequent flyers accomplishes very little if bags are left behind. DIAs Concourse A, which was to house Continental Airlines, was situated some 400 meters, and United AirlinesÃ¢â¬â¢ Concourse B nearly 1,000 meters, north of the main terminal. Concourse C, home to other carriers including American, Delta, Northwest, America West, and TWA, sat parallel to the other two concourses more than 1,600 meters north of the main terminal. The initial project design did not incorporate an airport-wide baggage system; the airport expected the individual airlines to build their own systems as in most other American airports. 1 United Airlines, which in June 1991 signed on to use DIA as its second-largest hub airport, proceeded to do just that. Needing an automated baggage handling system if it was to turn aircraft around in less than 30 minutes, United, in December 1991, commissioned BAE Automatic Systems, Inc. , a world leader in the design and implementation of material handling systems, to develop an automated baggage handling system for its B Concourse at D IA. The contract, which included engineering and early parts procurement only, was valued at $20 million; and the task was estimated to be completed in two and one-half years. We began working at DIA under a contract directly with United Airlines, recalled Di Fonso. Obviously, United Airlines has experience with airports. They concluded that the schedule had gotten totally out of control from the standpoint of baggage and they acted to serve their own needs, basically to protect themselves. We contracted with United and were already designing their portion of the system before the city went out for competitive bidding. BAE was founded as a division of Docutel Corporation in 1968. Docutel, which had developed the Telecar (a track-mounted automated baggage system), constructed an automated baggage system for United Airlines at San Francisco airport in 1978. When Docutel ran into financial difficulties during this installation, United asked Boeing, a major supplier of its aircraft, to take over the company. Boeing agreed and the new company, a wholly-owned subsidiary dubbed Boeing Airport Equipment, completed the San Francisco installation. In 1982, Boeing sold the company to its senior management, which renamed it BAE Automated Systems. In August 1985, BAE became an operating unit of Clarkson Industries, a wholly-owned subsidiary of London-based BTR plc. BTR plc (formerly British Tire and Rubber), was a $10 billion conglomerate with global interests in building, paper and printing products, and agricultural and aircraft equipment. In 1994, BAEs 365 employees worked on projects across the United States and in Europe and Australia. In-house engineering, manufacturing, and field support capabilities enabled BAE to develop, design, manufacture, install, and support every project it undertook from start to finish. BAE also provided consulting, engineering, and management services for airport projects and a variety of material handling applications. With sales of $100 million in 1994, up from approximately $40 million in 1991, BAE accounted for 90% of U. S. baggage sorting equipment sales. Between 1972 and 1994, the company had successfully designed, manufactured, and installed nearly 70 automated baggage handling systems (worth almost $500 million dollars) at major airports in the United States, in New York, Dallas-Fort Worth, Chicago, San Francisco, Atlanta, Miami, Newark, and Pittsburgh. It had also installed systems in Vancouver and London and was selected, in 1992, as a consultant to the $550 million main terminal for the New Seoul Metropolitan Airport in South Korea. BAE was a very self-contained, integrated company structured along two business lines: manufacturing and engineering. Its approximately 200,000 square foot manufacturing facility was capable of producing nearly all of the components required by BAE systems save motors, gearboxes, and bearings. The engineering department was structured according to major projects. Each project was assigned a project manager who reported directly to the company president. 1 Rifkin, G. : Ã¢â¬Å"What Really Happened at DenverÃ¢â¬â¢s Airport,Ã¢â¬ Forbes, SAP Supplement, August 29, 1994. 8 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System 396-311 Implementing an Integrated Baggage-Handling System BAE had already commence d work on Uniteds baggage system when the PMT recognized the potential benefits of an airport-wide integrated baggage system. Moreover, as one DIA senior manager explained, Ã¢â¬Å"airlines other than United simply were not coming forward with plans to develop their own baggage systems. Airport planners and consultants began to draw up specifications and the city sent out a request for bids. Of 16 companies contacted, both in the United States and abroad, only three responded. A consulting firm recommended against the submitted designs, on the grounds that the configurations would not meet the airportÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. BAE was among the companies that had decided not to bid for the job. BAE had installed the Telecar system at a number of other airports and the basic technologies of the Telecar, laser barcode readers, and conveyor belt systems were not new. What was new was the size and complexity of the system. A grand airport like DIA needs a complex baggage system, explained Di Fonso , Therefore the type of technology to be used for such a system is the kind of decision that must be made very early in a project. If there is a surprise like no bidders there is still time to react. At DIA, this never happened. Working with United Airlines, we had concluded that destination-coded vehicles moving at high speed was the technology needed. But quite honestly, although we had that technology developed, its implementation in a complex project like this would have required significantly greater time than the city had left available. A United project manager concurred: Ã¢â¬Å"BAE told them from the beginning that they were going to need at least one more year to get the system up and running, but no one wanted to hear that. Ã¢â¬ The City of Denver was getting the same story from the technical advisers to the Franz Josef Strauss Airport in Munich. The Munich Airport had an automated baggage system, but one far less complex than DIAÃ¢â¬â¢s. Nevertheless, MunichÃ¢â¬â¢s technical advisors had spent two years testing the system and the system had been running 24 hours a day for six months before the airport opened. Formulating Intentions As BAE was already working on UnitedÃ¢â¬â¢s automated baggage handling system and enjoyed a world-wide reputation as a superior baggage system builder, Denver approached the company. BAE was asked to study how the United concept could be expanded into an integrated airport system that could serve the other carriers in the various concourses. BAE presented the City of Denver with a proposal to develop the Ã¢â¬Å"most complex automated baggage system ever built,Ã¢â¬ according to Di Fonso. It was to be effective in delivering bags to and from passengers, and efficient in terms of operating reliability, maintainability, and future flexibility. The system was to be capable of directing bags (including suitcases of all sizes, skis, and golf clubs) from the main terminal through a tunnel into a remote concourse and directly to a gate. Such efficient delivery would save precious ground time, reduce close-out time for hub operations, and cut time-consuming manual baggage sorting and handling. Although an automated system was more expensive initially than simple tugs and baggage carts, it was expected that it would reduce the manpower which was required to distribute bags to the correct locations. Bags unloaded from an aircraft arriving at a particular concourse would barely be touched by human hands. Moved through the airport at speeds up to 20 mph, they would be waiting when passengers arrived at the terminal. To prove the capability of its mechanical aspects, and demonstrate the proposed system to the airlines and politicians, BAE built a prototype automated baggage handling system in a 50,000 square foot warehouse near its manufacturing plant in Carrollton, Texas. The prototype system convinced Chief Airport Engineer Walter Slinger that the automated system would work. [The City of Denver] approached us based on one core concept, recalled Di Fonso. They wanted to have a fully integrated, airport-wide baggage system. The city 9 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 396-311 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System had two major concerns. First, they had no acceptable proposal. Second, United was probably going to go ahead and build what it needed and the rest of the airport would have been equipped with something else. Di Fonso continued, When we arrived on the scene, we were faced with fully defined project specs, which obviously in the long run proved to be a major planning error. The city had fallen into a trap, which historically architects and engineers tend to fall into as they severely underplay the importance and significance of some of the requirements of a baggage system, that is, arranging things for the space into which it must fit, accommodating the weight it may impose on the building structure, the power it requires to run, and the ventilation and air conditioning that may be necessary to dissipate the heat it generates. In April 1992, BAE was awarded the $175. 6 million contract to build the entire airport system. According to Di Fonso, company executives and city officials hammered out a deal in three intense working sessions. We placed a number of conditions on accepting the job, he observed. The design was not to be changed beyond a given date and there would be a number of freeze dates for mechanical design, software design, permanent power requirements and the like. The contract made it obvious that both signatory parties were very concerned about the ability to complete. The provisions dealt mostly with all-around access, timely completion of certain areas, provision of permanent power, provision of computer rooms. All these elements were delineated as milestones. Denver officials accepted these requirements and, in addition, committed to unrestricted access for BAE equipment. Because of the tight deadlines, BAE would have priority in any area where it needed to install the system. Di Fonso elaborated, When we entered into the contract, Continental Airlines was still under bankruptcy law protection. The city was very concerned that they would be unable to pay for their concourse. They only contracted for about 40% of the equipment that is now in concourse A, which was the concourse that Continental had leased. Beyond that, concourse C had no signatory airlines as leaseholders at the time. The city, therefore, wanted the simplest, most elementary baggage system possible for concourse C. The outputs and inputs were very, very crude, intentionally crude to keep the costs down because the city had no assurance of revenue stream at that point in time. The city did not get the airlines together or ask them what they wanted or needed to operate. The approach was more along the lines of we will build the apartment building and then you come in and rent a set of rooms. Project Organization and Management No major organizational changes to accommodate the new baggage system were deemed necessary, although some managerial adjustments were made on the DIA project. Design of the United baggage system was frozen on May 15, 1992, when the PMT assumed managerial responsibility for the integrated baggage system. The direct relationship with BAE was delegated to Working Area 4, which also had responsibility for building design efforts such as the people-mover, airside concourse building, passenger bridge main landside building complex and parking garage, and various other smaller structures. The area manager, although he had no experience in airport construction, baggage system technologies, or the introduction of new technologies, possessed vast experience in construction project control management. BAE had to change its working structure to conform to DIAs project management structure. Di Fonso explained, 10 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System 396-311 There was a senior manager for each of the concourses and a manager for the main terminal. The bag system, however, traversed all of them. If I had to argue a case for right of way I would have to go to all the managers because I was traversing all four empires. In addition, because changes were happening fast at each of these sites, there was no time to have an information system to see what is concourse A deciding and what is concourse B deciding. We had to be personally involved to understand what was going on. There was no one to tie it all together and overlap all these effects because the basic organization was to manage it as discrete areas. It was pandemonium. We would keep saying that over and over again. Who is in charge? For the first two years of the project, Di Fonso was the project manager. The project was divided into three general areas of expertise: mechanical engineering, industrial control, and software design. Mechanical engineering was responsible for all mechanical components and their installation, industrial control for industrial control design, logic controller programming, and motor control panels, and software design for writing real-time process control software to manage the system. At the time the contract with BAE was signed, construction had already begun on the terminal and concourses. Substantial changes had to be made to the overall design of the terminal and some construction already completed had to be taken out and reinstalled to accommodate the expanded system. Installation of the expanded system was initially estimated to require more than $100 million in construction work. Walls had to be removed and a new floor installed in the terminal building to support the new system. Moreover, major changes in project governance were taking place during the baggage system negotiations. In May 1992, shortly after the baggage system negotiations commenced, the head of the DIA project resigned. The death in October 1992 of Chief Airport Engineer Slinger, who had been a strong proponent of the baggage system and closely involved in negotiations with BAE, also exerted a significant impact on the project. His cooperation had been essential because of the amount of heavy machinery and track that had to be moved and installed and the amount of construction work required to accommodate the system. His replacement, Gail Edmond, was selected because she had worked closely with him and knew all the players. Her managerial style, however, was quite different from SlingerÃ¢â¬â¢s. A Public Works manager recalled his first reaction to the change: Ã¢â¬Å"[The airport] is not going to be open on time. Ã¢â¬ A United Airlines project manager summarized EdmondÃ¢â¬â¢s challenge thus: Slinger was a real problem solver. He was controversial because of his attitude, but he was never afraid to address problems. He had a lot of autonomy and could get things done. Gail was in a completely different position. Basically, she had a good understanding of how the project was organized and who the key players were, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know much about the actual construction. Also, the city council didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give her anywhere near the autonomy and the authority that Slinger had and she had to get approval from the council on just about all decisions. They really tied her hands and everyone knew it. Di Fonso echoed the project managers assessment: Walter [Slinger] understood that one of the things we had to have was unrestricted access. I think he clearly understood the problem the city was facing and he understood the short timeframe under which we were operating. He was the one that accepted all of the contractual conditions, all the milestones of the original contract. He really had no opportunity to influence the outcome of this project, however, because he died within months after the contract was signed. I think Gail 11 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 96-311 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System did an excellent job [but] she was overwhelmed. 12 She just had too much. The layers below focused inward, worrying about their own little corners of the world. Ã¢â¬Å"Not only did we not get the unrestricted access that was agreed upon,Ã¢â¬ Di Fonso emphasized, Ã¢â¬Å"we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even have reas onable access. Ã¢â¬ Ten days after SlingerÃ¢â¬â¢s death, a BAE millwright found a truck from Hensel Phelps, the contractor building Concourse C, blocking her work site. She asked someone to move the truck or leave the keys so it could be moved. According to a BAE superintendent, Ã¢â¬Å"she was told that Ã¢â¬ËThis is not a BAE job and we can park anywhere we please: is that clear? Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Elsewhere, BAE electricians had to leave work areas where concrete grinders were creating clouds of dust. Fumes from chemical sealants forced other BAE workers to flee. Di Fonso pleaded with the city for help. Ã¢â¬Å"We ask that the city take prompt action to assure BAE the ability to continue its work in an uninterrupted manner,Ã¢â¬ he wrote. Ã¢â¬Å"Without the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s help, the delays to BAEÃ¢â¬â¢s work will quickly become unrecoverable. 13 To further complicate matters, the airlines began requesting changes to the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s design even though the mechanical and software designs were supposed to be frozen. Ã¢â¬Å"Six months prior to opening the airport,Ã¢â¬ Di Fonso recalled, Ã¢â¬Å"we were still moving equipment around, changing controls, changing software design. Ã¢â¬ In August 1992, for example, United altered plans for a transfer system for bags changing planes, requesting that BAE eliminate an entire loop of track from Concourse B. Rather than two complete loops of track, United would have only one. This change saved approximately $20 million, but required a system redesign. Additional ski-claim devices and odd-size baggage elevators added in four of the six sections of the terminal added $1. 61 million to the cost of the system. One month later, Continental requested that automated baggage sorting systems be added to its west basement at an additional cost of $4. 67 million. The ski claim area length was first changed from 94 feet to 127 feet, then in January 1993, shortened to 112 feet. The first change added $295,800, the second subtracted $125,000, from the cost. The same month, maintenance tracks were added to permit the Telecars to be serviced without having to lift them off the main tracks at an additional cost of $912,000. One year later, United requested alterations to its odd-size baggage inputsÃ¢â¬âcost of the change: $432,000. Another problem was the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to supply Ã¢â¬Å"cleanÃ¢â¬ electricity to the baggage system. The motors and circuitry used in the system were extremely sensitive to power surges and fluctuations. When electrical feedback tripped circuit breakers on hundreds of motors, an engineer was called in to design filters to correct the problem. Although ordered at that time, the filters still had not arrived several months later. A city worker had canceled a contract without realizing that the filters were part of it. The filters finally arrived in March 1994. A third, albeit disputed, complication related to DenverÃ¢â¬â¢s requirement, and city law, that a certain percentage of jobs be contracted to minority-owned companies. The City of Denver had denied BAEÃ¢â¬â¢s original contract because it did not comply with hiring requirements, where upon BAE engaged some outside contractors in lieu of BAE employees. Di Fonso estimated that this increased costs by approximately $6 million, a claim ejected by the Mayors Office of Contract Compliance. Then, in September 1993, BAEÃ¢â¬â¢s contract negotiations with the City of Denver over maintenance of the system resulted in a two-day strike of 300 millwrights that was joined by some 200 electricians. BAE negotiated with Denver for maintenance workers to earn $12 per hour on certai n jobs that the union contended should be worth $20 per hour. As a result, BAE lost the maintenance contract. 12 In addition to her role as Chief Airport Engineer, Edmond kept her previous responsibilities as Chief of Construction and Acting Director of Aviation. 3 Rocky Mountain News, January 29, 1995 12 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System 396-311 Project Relations Much of the effort for implementing the baggage system was directed within one of the four working areas. The relationship with the management team was very poor, recalled Di Fonso. The management team had no prior baggage handling competence or experience. This was treated as a major public works project. The management team treated the baggage system as similar to pouring concrete or putting in air-conditioning ducts. When we would make our complaints about delays and access and so forth, other contractors would argue their position. The standard answer was, Go work it out among yourselves. . . . With contractors basically on their own, this led almost to anarchy. Everyone was doing his or her own thing. Another perspective was offered by a project manager from Stone Webster, a consultant to the PMT, reflecting on the work done by BAE: Ã¢â¬Å"This contractor simply did not respond to the obvious incredible workload they were faced with. Their inexperienced project management vastly underestimated their task. Their work ethic was deplorable. Ã¢â¬ 14 PMT management insisted that access and mechanical issues werenÃ¢â¬â¢t the problem. They were running cars in Concourse B all summer (1993), Edmund observed. The problem was that the programming was not done and BAE had full control of the programming. Ã¢â¬ 15 Lawsuits and a Backup Baggage System In February 1993, Mayor Webb delayed the scheduled October 1993 airport opening to December 19, 1993. Later, this December date was changed to March 9, 1994. Everybody got into the panic mode of trying to get to this magical date that nobody was ready for,Ã¢â¬ a senior vicepresident for BAE recalled. In September 1993, the opening was again postponedÃ¢â¬âthis time until May 15, 1994. In late April 1994, the City of Denver invited reporters to observe the first test of the baggage system, without notifying BAE. Seven thousand bags were to be moved to ContinentalÃ¢â¬â ¢s Concourse A and UnitedÃ¢â¬â¢s Concourse B. So many problems were discovered that testing had to be halted. Reporters saw piles of disgorged clothes and other personal items lying beneath the TelecarÃ¢â¬â¢s tracks. Most of the problems related to errors in the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s computer software, but mechanical problems also played a part. The software that controlled the delivery of empty cars to the terminal building, for example, often sent the cars back to the waiting pool. Another problem was Ã¢â¬Å"jam logicÃ¢â¬ software, which was designed to shut down a section of track behind a jammed car, but instead shut down an entire loop of track. Optical sensors designed to detect and monitor cars were dirty causing the system to believe that a section of track was empty when, in fact, it had held a stopped car. Collisions between cars dumped baggage on tracks and on the floor; jammed cars jumped the track and bent the rails; faulty switches caused the Telecars to dump luggage onto the tracks or against the walls of the tunnels. After the test, Mayor Webb delayed the airportÃ¢â¬â¢s opening yet again, this time indefinitely. Ã¢â¬Å"Clearly, the automated baggage system now underway at DIA is not yet at a level that meets the requirements of the city, the airlines, or the traveling public,Ã¢â¬ the mayor stated. The city set the costs of the delay at $330,000 per month. Recognizing that his reputation was staked on his ability to have a baggage system performing to a point at which the new airport could be opened, Mayor Webb engaged, in May 1994, the German firm Logplan to assess the state of the automated baggage system. In July, Logplan isolated a loop of track that contained every feature of the automated baggage 14 15 Forbes, ASAP Supplement, August 29, 1994. Forbes, ASAP Supplement, August 29, 1994. 13 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 396-311 BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System ystem and intended to run it for an extended period to test the reliability of the Telecars. Jams on the conveyor belts and collisions between cars caused the test to be halted. The system did not run long enough to determine if there was a basic design flaw or to analyze where the problems were. Logplan recommended construction of a backup baggage system, and suggested using Rapistan Demag, a firm it had worked with in the past. Construction of a backup system was announced in August 1994. The system itself cost $10. million, but electrical upgrades and major building modifications raised the projected cost to $50 million. In the meantime, the City of Denver, as well as many major airlines, hired legal firms to assist with negotiations and future litigation. Ã¢â¬Å"We will have enough legal action for the rest of this century,Ã¢â¬ a city administrator mused. The City of Denver had to communicate with such parties as the United States Federal grand jury, Securities Exchange Commission, and the General Accounting Office. The federal grand jury was conducting a general investigation concerning DIA. The SEC was investigating the sale of $3. 2 billion in bonds to finance DIAÃ¢â¬â¢s construction, and GAO the use of Congressional funds. Di Fonso, reviewing Mayor WebbÃ¢â¬â¢s letter and requests that BAE pay a $12,000-a-day penalty for missing DIAÃ¢â¬â¢s original October 29, 1993 completion date, as well as assuming the costs of building the $50 million conventional tug-and-cart baggage system, summed up the situation thus: We have gotten to the point with the city that literally we are not talking to each other. Consultants recommended a backup baggage system, and the minute that the decision was made, the city had to defend it. We are left out in limbo. 14 Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012 396-311 -15- Exhibit 1 Organization Chart Acting Associate Director of Aviation Denver International Airport City Attorneys Contract Compliance DIA Coordinator Tenant Facilities Administrative Assistant Marketing/Public Information Manager Planner Program Manager Computer Systems Administration Deputy Program Manager Airline Specialty Systems Environmental Engineer Contracts Risk Management Financial Manager of Design Contract Administration Administrative Assistant Manager of Project Controls Architectural Supervisor Engineering Supervisor Document Control Contracts Staff Clerical Staff MIS Schedule Cost Estimating Project Managers Support Staff Manager of Construction Project Controls Support Staff Safety Manager Senior Project Engineer QA/QC Manager Employee Relations Area 12 Manager Area 3 Manager Area 4A Manager Area 4B Manager Area 5 Manager Construction Support Staff Source: City and County of Denver, Colorado, Airport System Review Bonds, Series 1991D, October 1991. Purchased by Ashley Matcheck ([emailprotected] com) on April 11, 2012